历年中考60个高频单词\/短语用法大总结(上)

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同学们经常会遇到这样的情况,明明记了很多单词和短语,分数却迟迟提不上来。这是因为记住了不等于会用,只有会用的时候,才说明真正掌握了一个单词或词组,才能在考试中游刃有余!



1. cost / take / spend / pay 花费


花费时间做某事 :

It takes sb some time to do sth . = sb spend some time (in)doing sth .= sb spend some time on sth .


某人花钱买某物 :

sb spend some money on sth .= sb pay some money for sth.= sth cost sb . some money .


注意:

⑴ cost 和 pay 只指花费钱,take 只指花费时间,spend 可以指花费钱也可以指花费时间。

⑵ spend 和 pay 主语都是人, cost 主语是物,take 一般用于 It takes sb some time to do sth. 句型中。


2. thanks for 为…...而感谢


Thanks for inviting me to your birthday party .

谢谢你邀请我来你的生日聚会。


thanks to 多亏/由于


Thanks to your help. I got good grades .

幸亏你的帮助,我才取得好成绩。


3. 多么…...


what + 名词;how + 形容词/ 副词


What bad weather !多么糟糕的天气啊!

How hard he works ! 他工作多么努力啊!

What fresh vegetables ! 多么新鲜的蔬菜啊!

How cute a monkey it is ! 它是一只多么可爱的猴子啊!


4 . 因为......;由于......


because(连词)+从句

because of(介词短语)+ 名词(短语)


I didn’t go to school because I had a headache.

因为我头疼,所以我没去上学。

He was late for class because of the bad weather .

由于糟糕的天气,他上课迟到了。


注意:because和 so不能同时连用 。


5 . 来自


be from = come from


Where are you from ? = Where do you come from?

你来自哪里?


6 .How often 多久一次(对频率提问)

How long 多久(对一段时间提问)

How soon多久以后 (对将来时间提问)

How far 多长(询问多长距离)


— How long have you been collecting the kites ?

你收集风筝多长时间了?

—For ten years. 

十年了。


— How often do you go shopping ?

你多久购物一次? 

—Sometimes.

有时。


— How soon will your father come back ?

你爸爸多久以后回来?

—In two years.两

年后。


— How far is it from your home to school ?

从你家到学校多远?

—About ten miles.

大概十英里。


7 . 乘坐交通工具


take a / the +交通工具

by+交通工具=on a 交通工具

交通工具有:train/bus/car/taxi/boat/subway/plane...


He takes a bus to bank.= He goes to bank by bus.

他乘坐公共汽车去银行。


注意:骑自行车、马或驴用ride

ride one’s bike / ride a horse / ride a donkey


8 . 对不起


Excuse me (劳驾,客套话)

Sorry (表示道歉)


Excuse me. Where is Tianfu Square in Chengdu ?

打扰一下,成都的天府广场在哪里?


—Don’t eat in class.

不要在课堂上吃东西。

—Sorry. Ms Clark .

对不起,Clark小姐。


9 . 声音


sound (自然界的各种声音)

noise(噪音)

voice(人的嗓音)


Lucy has a sweet voice.

露西有甜美的嗓音。

Don’t make noise.

不要制造噪音。


10. 像......


look like (外貌看起来像… )

be like (性格像… )


—Lily look like Lucy .

莉莉长得像露西。

—Oh , they are twins.

哦,她们是双胞胎。


Tony is like a monkey because he is cute and playful .

托尼像只猴子,因为他可爱又爱玩耍。


11. 拿, 带


take… to … 带去

bring…to …带来

fetch 取来 (强调一个来回)


Tony , fetch the ball here. Please.

托尼,请把那个球取来。

My father often takes me to concerts on Sundays.

周日,爸爸经常带我去听音乐会。

Bring your homework to school tomorrow.

明天,把你的作业带到学校来。


12. 一些


some 用于肯定句

any 用于否定句和疑问句


I’d like some milk.


—Would you like some yogurt ?

你想要一些酸奶吗?

—Thanks . I don’t want any.

谢谢,不用了。


注意:在一般疑问句中,认为对方的答案会是肯定的,或期望得到对方肯定回答时,也用some。


13. 多少


How many修饰可数名词复数

How much 修饰不可数名词


How much juice do you want ?

你想要多少果汁?

How many apples do you want ?

你想要多少苹果?


注意:How much可对价钱提问:


How much are the potatoes ?

这些土豆多少钱?


14. 看


see 强调看的结果

look (at )不及物动词,强调看的动作

watch 观看(带有观赏性质)

read 读,朗读:看书、看报、看信、看杂志


Don’t read in bed.

不要在床上看书。

We will watch a basketball game this evening.

今天晚上,我们将去看一场篮球比赛。

Please look at the blackboard. Everyone.

大家请看黑板。

I saw a bird in the tree yesterday.

昨天,我看到一只鸟在树上。


15. 停止做某事


stop doing sth 停止正在做的事

stop to do sth 停下来去做别的事


The girl soon stopped crying.

这个女孩不久就不哭了。

He was tired and stopped to have a rest.

他很累,停下来休息一下。


16. forget/remember


forget / remember to do sth:忘记/记得去做某事(未做)

forget/remember doing sth:忘记/记得做过某事(做过)


He forgot to turn off the light.

他忘记关灯了。(未关)

Remember to go to the post office after school.

记得放学后去邮局。(未去)

He forgot turning off the light.

他忘记关了灯。(已关)

Don’t you remember seeing the man before ?

难道你不记得之前见过这个人吗?(见过)


17. 到达…...


reach + 地点

get to + 地点

arrive + in + 大地点

arrive + at + 小地点


He reached London yesterday.= He got to London yesterday.=He arrived in London yesterday.

他昨天到的伦敦。

She arrived at the bus station just now.

她刚才到达了公交站。

You should get home on time.

你应该按时到家。


注意:当get和arrive后接地点副词时,都不加介词。如:get home/there 等。


18. 擅长,在…...方面做得好


be good at = do well in


She is good at chemistry.=She does well in chemistry.

她擅长化学。

Niuniu is good at playing the violin.=Niuniu _does well in playing the violin.

妞妞擅长弹钢琴。

Lucy and Lily are twin girls . Lucy is better at dancing than Lily , but Lily does better in singing than Lucy.

露西和莉莉是一对双胞胎姐妹。露西比莉莉擅长跳舞,但是莉莉在唱歌方面做得比露西好。


19. 赢得,打败


win (赢得)后接a game、war 、a match、a prize等。

beat(打败、战胜)后接运动员、球队、对手等。


Which team won the football match ?

哪个队赢了这场足球比赛?

Wang Hao beat Ma Lin and won the champion of the Men’s Singles.

王浩打败了马林,赢得了男子单打冠军。


20. 借


borrow sth. from sb = borrow sb. sth 向某人借某物(借入)

lend sth. to sb = lend sb. sth把某物借给某人(借出)

keep延续性动词,与一段时间连用。


Can you lend me your bike ?= Can you lend your bike to me ?

你能把自行车借给我吗?

You can borrow some money from your brother.=You can borrow your brother some money.

你可以向你的兄弟借一些钱。

—How long can I keep the book ?

我可以借这本书多久?

—You can keep it for two weeks.

你可以借两周。


21.能,会:be able to, can


I can play the guitar.

我会弹吉他。

He is able to play chess.

他会下象棋。


注意:情态动词后面都接动词原形。


22. 太多......;太......


too many 太多, 修饰可数名词复数

too much 太多,修饰不可数名词

much too太, 后跟形容词或副词原级


There are too many students in the hallways. It’s dangerous.

走廊里有太多学生。很危险。

I had too much bread for breakfast.

我早饭吃了多面包。

This coat is much too expensive.

这件大衣太贵了。


23. 去过/去了某地


have / has been to 去过某地

have / has gone to 去了某地


He has been to Beijing.

他去过北京。(现在已不在北京)

He has gone to Beijing. 

他去了北京。(在去北京的途中或已到北京)


24. 关于use 的三个句型


used to do sth.过去常做某事

be(get)used to doing sth.习惯于做某事

be used to do sth = be used for doing sth. 被用于做某事


This river used to be very clean .

这条河过去非常干净。

I’m not used to getting up early.

我不习惯早起。

Pens are used for writing.

钢笔被用来写字。


25. 属于......


belong to + 名词/人称代词宾格(属于)

be + 名词所有格/ 名词性物主代词(是)


It must be Ning’s.= It must belong to Ning.

它一定是宁的。

The pencil must be mine.= The pencil must belong to me.

这支铅笔一定是我的。


26. can’t 不可能: must(一定)反义词


The CD must belong to Tony, because he likes listening to music.

这张CD一定是托尼的,因为他喜欢听音乐。

The toy can't be my grandpa's . After all,he is an old man.

这个玩具不可能是我爷爷的。毕竟,他是一个老人。


27. 由…...制成


be made from:由…...制成(看不出原材料)

be made of:由…...制成(看得出原材料)


The table is made of wood.

这张桌子是用木材做的。

Paper is made from wood.

纸是用木材做的。


28. 更喜欢......


prefer to do/doing sth 更喜欢做某事

prefer sth to sth 比起......来,更喜欢......

prefer doing sth to doing sth 比起做......来,更喜欢做......


I prefer swiming to playing balls.

比起打球来,我更喜欢游泳。

He prefers fish to beef.

比起牛肉来,他更喜欢鱼。

I prefer to walk to work.

我更喜欢走路去上班。


29. 一些表示人的情感或情绪的形容词


—ed 修饰人

—ing 修饰物


interesting:有趣的; interested:感兴趣的

tiring:累人的; tired;累的,疲倦的

boring:令人无聊的;bored:无聊的

exciting:令人兴奋的;excited:激动的

surprising:令人惊讶的; surprised:惊讶的

relaxing:令人放松的; relaxed:放松的

embarrassing:令人尴尬的;令人为难的;embarrassed:尴尬的;为难的


She is interested in this interesting history story.

她对这个有趣的历史故事很感兴趣。


30. 关于 number 的两个短语


the number of + 名词复数:…...的数量(作主语时,谓语用单数)

a number of + 名词复数:许多、一些= many (作主语时,谓语用复数)


The number of students in our class is 80.

我们班学生的数量是八十人。

A number of students are in Helin Middle School.

很多学生在鹤林中学。


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